Animal Rights and Vegan Advocacy
PUBLIC BETA SITE

Site Guidelines

These site guidelines serve the purpose of encouraging good practices, advancing credibility, promoting consistency, encouraging quality, establishing expectations for volunteers, providing answers to likely questions, conveying the intentions of the founder regarding how the vision of the site is to be realized, and facilitating the production of the annual JFA Handbook.

The guidelines are presented in the outline that follows. A full article may be written from the outline in the future  for now, the guidelines are presented only in outline form because of their likely volatility in this nascent stage of the site. The posts that were published prior to these guidelines are now being rewritten to comply.

The outline goes deeper than it may appear to at first glance.

 Site GuidelinesKnowledge Base
  • Context
    • Purpose of Guidelines
      • Encourage good practices and, in doing so, promote credibility.
      • Promote consistency across the site.
      • Encourage quality.
      • Establish expectations for volunteers and contributors.
      • Anticipate and provide answers to questions that volunteers are likely to conceive.
      • Convey the intentions of the founder regarding how the vision for the site is to be realized.
      • Establish rules that will prove helpful in producing the JFA Handbook from existing content.
        • For example, using headers H3 and H4 for post headers will allow H1 and H2 to be used for the section and title levels in the handbook.
    • The Need for Guidelines
      • Contributor guidelines would be a benefit for any site, but given the special features of JFA  its outlines, citations, clipboard text, citations, tabs, etc.  it is almost a necessity.
      • What one needs to know of these guidelines will vary with one’s role as author, researcher, proofreader, media preparer, or tester.
    • Forthcoming Revisions
      • Existing posts often violate these guidelines but are being revised to comply.
      • The guidelines are fluid and will be revised and augmented with experience.
  • Overall Site Considerations
    • Vision
      • The JFA site endeavors to serve as:
        • A quality resource for advocates.
        • A starting point for pre-vegans and new vegans.
        • The supporting site for the educational programs of JFA.
      • This site may differ from similar sites by providing:
        • Unique, useful tools, such as:
          • Talking-point outlines for most posts.
          • Copy-to-clipboard, for rapid response for most posts.
          • A knowledge base combining the outlines of the posts from various sections of the site.
          • JFA Handbook produced annually from posts on the website.
            • The book will be free in e-book and PDF formats.
        • A high standard for sources and citations.
          • See the Research section below.
        • A logical, sectional organization that makes it easier to explore and find relevant information.
        • A friendly, inviting tone.
        • A relevance-based search capability that makes it easier to find information no matter which section the information is under.
      • The JFA website is not:
        • A home for hit pieces and rants.
        • A news website.
        • A recipe website.
      • The vision for the site has grown.
        • This site was originally conceived just as a locus for the animal rights and vegan educational presentations that the founder planned to give upon retirement.
        • Later, the scope of the site was expanded to include features and tools the founder wanted but could not find elsewhere:
          • The talking-points outline idea was born of a frustration with not being able to recall details when they needed to be summoned.
          • The rapid-response, copy-to-clipboard idea was born from the realization that such a tool would be useful by, first, being readily available and, second, supplanting the need to write the same responses to objections over and over.
          • The knowledge base was conceived from a realization that existing posts could be combined into a large outline that could potentially be a very valuable resource for advocates.
      • Both storytelling and facts and figures will be employed.
        • We recognize storytelling can be more effective than facts and figures and that facts and figures must be used judiciously.
        • One of the primary purposes of this site is to supply talking points to advocates, and these talking points necessarily present facts and figures.
        • We will use storytelling more in our educational presentations.
    • Tone
      • Striking the right tone is an important ingredient of persuasion.
        • Tone can lend credibility or diminish it.
        • Tone can work to badge the site a serious site or just a series of rants and hit pieces.
        • Tone can encourage consideration of a site’s content or drive people away.
      • Information should be presented as an invitation to the audience to consider the information’s merits.
      • Make an effort to avoid:
        • Hyperbole and exaggeration.
        • Scare quotes.
          • Scare quotes convey cynicism, which, unlike skepticism, is a liability.
        • Overly emotional language.
        • Ultimatums.
          • “A man convinced against his will is of the same opinion still.”  Ben Franklin
        • Overly harsh criticism of those in the movement who advocate strategies and tactics with which we disagree.
          • Such criticism is often justified, but it seems that plenty of energy is already being spent on such efforts.
        • Questioning a person’s or organization’s motives without strong evidence.
          • Questioning motives requires a higher standard of evidence than questioning their position on a topic.
        • Overselling the benefits of veganism.
          • Don’t oversell the health benefits of veganism.
          • Don’t oversell the environmental devastation of animal agriculture.
      • The following are prohibited:
        • Ad hominem attacks.
        • Racist, sexist, classist, homophobic, ageist, ableist, or demeaning language.
        • Hate speech.
      • Tones to embrace, more or less:
        • Appreciative
        • Ardent
        • Benevolent
        • Candid
        • Cautionary
        • Compassionate
        • Curious
        • Dignified
        • Diplomatic
        • Earnest
        • Empathetic
        • Encouraging
        • Frank
        • Gentle
        • Humble
        • Informative
        • Inspirational
        • Laudatory
        • Objective
        • Optimistic
        • Persuasive
        • Philosophical
        • Pragmatic
        • Sincere
        • Sympathetic
        • Thoughtful
        • Tolerant
        • Unassuming
        • Source1Adapted from Amanda Patterson. “155 Words to Describe an Author’s Tone.” Writers Write, June 24, 2014. https://writerswrite.co.za/155-words-to-describe-an-authors-tone/
      • Tones to avoid, more or less:
        • Angry
        • Belligerent
        • Bitter
        • Callous
        • Condescending
        • Cynical
        • Egotistical
        • Evasive
        • Flippant
        • Inane
        • Jaded
        • Malicious
        • Mean spirited
        • Mocking
        • Naive
        • Narcissistic
        • Obsequious
        • Patronizing
        • Pretentious
        • Sulking
        • Vindictive
        • Source2Adapted from Amanda Patterson. “155 Words to Describe an Author’s Tone.” Writers Write, June 24, 2014. https://writerswrite.co.za/155-words-to-describe-an-authors-tone/
    • Site Sections
      • Basics
        • The Basics Section contains articles covering basic information about veganism and animal rights.
        • Posts in the Basics Section are ordered to reflect the desired sequence of reading, with “An Introduction to Veganism” first and “Getting Started with Going Vegan” last.
        • There should be a limited number of posts in this section.
      • Objections
        • Posts in the Objections Section supply reasoned responses to common objections, concerns, and questions regarding animal rights and veganism.
        • The content of an article in the Objections Section should be as brief as possible to answer the objection.
        • To mitigate the possibility of confusion about our position, the link for an objection post will be prefixed with the word “quote.”
        • Because the Objections Section is presented accordion style (in which post text is hidden until the title is clicked), and because Google and other search engines do not index hidden information, a List View link is included on the Objections Section page. This link takes you to a page where the objections are displayed similar to how they are displayed in the Blog Section. This ensures search engines will index the posts.
      • Rebuttals
        • The Rebuttals Section provides rebuttals to books, articles, and other media that distort information about veganism and animal rights.
        • The Rebuttals Section is not for rebuttals against those in the movement with whom we disagree over strategy.
        • When misinformation with a high degree of visibility is published by a major media outlet, it should be countered with a post in this section.
        • When a research study containing distorted information is published  or when a study’s interpretation is widely distorted across media outlets  that information should be countered with a post in this section.
        • Timeliness is important for rebuttals. It is hoped that additional authors can be called upon to author rebuttals in a timely manner.
        • Oftentimes, organizations like PCRM offer timely rebuttals. In such cases, it is more than acceptable to use this material, as long as proper attribution is given.
        • Rebuttals should have at least an Article Tab, an Outline Tab, and a Clipboard Tab. Other tabs are desirable.
      • Educational Presentations
        • The Educational Presentations Section will contain information about the educational programs offered by JFA.
        • This section will not be developed until the Basics Section and the Objections Section are essentially complete.
      • Blog
        • The Blog Section provides posts about a variety of topics that do not fit in other sections.
        • Blog entries should have at least an Article Tab. Other tabs are desired on a blog post but are not required, particularly for shorter entries.
        • Blog entries will be listed in reverse chronological order.
      • Team
        • The Team Section contains posts of interest only to Team-JFA volunteers or those interested in volunteering.
        • The Team Section link is in the More drop-down menu (under For Team-JFA Only), as the section does not require the same level of visibility as other sections.
      • Future Sections
        • It is possible current sections will be modified in name and scope and that other sections, such as a FAQ section, will be added.
    • Knowledge Base
      • The Knowledge Base is created by combining the outlines from several sections of the site into one large outline.
      • Once all the Basics Section articles and Objections Section articles are completed, it will provide a fairly broad body of knowledge for vegan advocates.
      • As articles get written, they will automatically be added to this Knowledge Base.
    • Annual Handbook
      • JFA Handbook will be created annually.
      • The book will be named by year  for example, JFA Handbook 2018.
      • The book will be created by parsing posts.
        • The updated posts in the Basics Section and Objections Section will all be included.
        • Selected new posts from the Blog Section and Rebuttals Section will be included.
      • The book will be free in e-book and PDF formats.
        • The e-book will have active internal links.
      • A printed copy of the book will be available for a cost.
    • Continuous Revision
      • Posts will be revised as:
        • Information on the site is discovered to be misleading or false.
        • Newer pertinent information becomes available.
          • For example, the USDA recently declared, for the first time, in cooperation with HHS, that totally plant-based diets are healthy. This is a good point because the USDA is known to be a friend of animal agriculture.
        • Better arguments are discovered.
        • Improved wording for existing arguments is conceived.
      • These revisions, if in the Basics Section or Objections Section, will become part of the next year’s JFA Handbook.
  • Research
    • Sources
      • Seek to use the highest quality sources available.
        • UC Santa Cruz provides some questions to ask when evaluating sources.3“Evaluate the Quality and Credibility of Your Sources | University Library.” Accessed May 16, 2017. http://library.ucsc.edu/help/research/evaluate-the-quality-and-credibility-of-your-sources
      • Do not misrepresent a source.
      • Primary sources are preferred for factual data.
        • Example:
          • “Calves are removed from their mothers within 24 hours of birth.”
          • The above statement is not presented as an interpretation, nor as an informed opinion gleaned from a variety of sources, but as a statement of fact.
      • For interpretations of highly technical research or other data, secondary sources from objective experts are encouraged over primary sources.
        • One research study rarely provides positive proof, so objective expert testimony can be more meaningful, not to mention more convincing.
        • If an author is not qualified to interpret research or technical data, it is better to rely on objective experts.
        • Appealing to authority, often thought of only in the context of a fallacy, can be a valid technique and is useful for avoiding getting caught up in facts and figures.
      • Sources should be credible to the target audience.
        • For credibility with non-vegans, validated sources, to whatever extent possible and where appropriate, should not originate within the animal rights and vegan communities.
          • Relying on experts in the animal rights or veganism movement is discouraged for establishing the veracity of positions widely doubted or not understood by those not in the movement.
            • For example, citing an organization named Animal Rights League, particularly for factual information, is not convincing to those who do not believe in animal rights, no matter how factual the information presented.
            • These organizations include:
              • Any organization that is primarily an animal rights organization, an animal welfare organization, or a vegan organization.
              • Any organization whose name indicates it is an animal rights organization, an animal welfare organization, or a vegan organization.
        • According to a study on belief-revision policies, what one does with the information “depends substantially on her attitude towards the source of information: her assessment of the reliability of the source.”4Baltag, A., Rodenhäuser, B., & Smets, S. (2011). Doxastic attitudes as belief-revision policies. (Unpublished manuscript). ILLC, University of Amsterdam. Amsterdam, Netherlands
        • Sources friendly to opposing views can often be used to lend credence to a point.
          • Example: “Even the National Dairy Association acknowledges . . .”
          • The USDA, with its abundance of information (and as a friend of animal agriculture), is often a good source.
      • If a quality source for a factual statement cannot be found, the statement should not be used. No exceptions.
      • Plagiarism is not acceptable.
        • When in doubt, credit the source.
        • Using someone’s words without quotation marks is plagiarism even if you cite the source.
    • Citations
      • Use Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) to style citations.
      • The CMOS citation guide is free.
        • Use the free Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide.5“The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide.” Accessed May 9, 2017. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
      • Notes and Bibliography notation is used, not inline Author-Date citations.
        • This makes for a more continuous, less interruptive experience for the reader.
      • Ibid. is allowed even after CMOS 17th edition is released in August 2017.
        • The use of “ibid.” was demoted in the CMOS 17th edition because tracing back references would, in some cases, be overly difficult. That is not the case with JFA because we don’t use inline references and we are not using a bibliography for the entire site.
      • Endnotes are used for each post as there is no bibliography for the entire site.
        • A WordPress plugin takes care of this.
      • Citations are placed inline, enclosed in double parentheses. The software will replace the citation with a numbered superscript and place the actual citation in the numbered endnotes.
        • This example uses single parentheses because double parentheses would transform into endnotes:
          • This: Dr. Fuhrman explains that “any combination of natural foods will supply you with adequate protein including all eight essential amino acids.”(Fuhrman, Joel. Eat to Live: The Revolutionary Formula for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss. Reprint edition. Little, Brown and Company, 2005, 30 )
          • Is rendered thusly: Dr. Fuhrman explains that “any combination of natural foods will supply you with adequate protein including all eight essential amino acids.”6Fuhrman, Joel. Eat to Live: The Revolutionary Formula for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss. Reprint edition. Little, Brown and Company, 2005, 30
      • Zotero is used to catalog and properly format citations. See the screencast (forthcoming) on how to use Zotero.
  • Words and Grammar
    • Style Guides
      • The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is the primary reference on word usage and grammar.
      • CMOS is not used for aesthetics  anything styled using CSS:
        • Margins.
        • Spacing.
        • Footnote layout.
      • Some parts of the 17th edition of CMOS, due out in August of 2017, may be used prior to its publication.
        • Example: The singular “they.”
          • The singular “they” should be avoided but is permitted in some cases.7Minion Fogarty. “Gender-Neutral Pronouns: Singular ‘They.’” Quick and Dirty Tips, April 7, 2017. http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/gender-neutral-pronouns-singular-they
      • The CMOS can be accessed in several ways.
        • You can search the internet.
          • Example: Search for “Chicago Manual of Style title capitalization.”
            • More often than not, in my limited experience, searching in this way yields useful results.
        • The official version is available for a cost.
          • A $65 book.
            • The 17th edition will be available in August of 2017.
          • An annual $39 subscription.
            • The subscription has good search capabilities.
        • You can purchase a less expensive style guide that closely follows the CMOS.
          • The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation8Garner, Bryan A. The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation. University of Chicago Press, 2016
          • A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition9Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. Edited by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and University of Chicago Press Staff. 8th. edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013
      • Mignon Fogarty, a.k.a. Grammar Girl, is an additional resource.
        • Where there is ambiguity or lack of guidance in CMOS, Grammar Girl will be considered an authority.
          • Examples:
            • Split infinitives.
            • Passive voice.
            • Ending a sentence with a preposition.
            • Starting a sentence with a conjunction.10Mignon Fogarty. “3 Tips for Creating Sentences with Punch.” Quick and Dirty Tips, March 16, 2017. http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/3-tips-for-creating-sentences-with-punch
            • Source11Mignon Fogarty. “Grammar Girl Herself, Mignon Fogarty, Talks to CMOS.” CMOS Shop Talk, March 4, 2013. http://cmosshoptalk.com/2013/03/04/this-month-were-talking-to-grammar-girl-herself-mignon-fogarty/
      • Why not AP style?
        • AP style provides no citation standard.
        • AP style is more appropriate for news.
          • AP style rules for abbreviations are confusing and harken back to the day when typesetting was costly.
        • CMOS is more appropriate for the future JFA Handbook.
    • Spelling
      • Use Merriam-Webster, as recommended by CMOS.
      • This dictionary is available for free online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/.
      • “A good dictionary is essential. Chicago recommends Webster’s Third New International Dictionary and the latest edition of its chief abridgment, Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary; both are available in print and online.”12“The Chicago Manual of Style Online 2.51: Choosing a Dictionary and Other Reference Works.” Accessed May 17, 2017. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/16/ch02/ch02_sec051.html
    • Scannability
      • Use, but don’t overuse, the following to improve scannability of the text:
        • Headers and subheadings (discussed above).
        • Italics, not only for emphasis but also to improve scannability.
        • Bulleted lists.
        • Inverted pyramid style.
          • The conclusion and the most important points come first.
        • Source:
          • Adapted from Jakob Nielson’s “How Users Read on the Web.”13Jakob Neilson. “How Users Read on the Web,” October 1, 1997. https://www.nngroup.com/articles/how-users-read-on-the-web/
      • Scannability is not applicable to outline text or copy-to-clipboard text, so the guidelines for scannability do not apply.
    • Point of View
      • Avoid first-person singular except for posts in the Blog Section.
    • JFA Specific
      • Numbers
        • Use the CMOS alternate rule for numbers. See 9.3 In CMOS 17th edition:
          • “9.3An alternative rule  zero through nine.
            Many publications, including those in scientific or journalistic contexts, follow the simple rule of spelling out only single-digit numbers and using numerals for all others (but see 9.7). Most of the exceptions to the general rule (9.2) also apply to this alternative rule. Round multiples of hundreds, thousands, and hundred thousands, however, are typically expressed as numerals when the alternative rule is in force (cf. 9.4).”

      • Ellipses
        • Use the single-character ellipsis. Do not enter three periods.
        • Do not enter a space before or after an ellipsis.
        • A WordPress plugin will transform each single-character ellipsis to three periods with nonbreaking spaces before, after, and between the periods.
          • Exception: If quotation marks follow a single-character ellipsis, a nonbreaking space will not be placed after the ellipsis.
      • Em Dashes
        • Use the single-character em dash, not one or more hyphens.
        • Do not include spaces before or after an em dash.
          • Exception:  A space before an em dash is allowed if what follows the em dash is the name or initials of a person after a quotation, work assignment, etc.
        • The JFA site-wide WordPress plugin ensures that there can be no line break before an em dash unless a space is entered before the em dash.
  • Outlines
    • Purpose
      • Outlines provide the raw material for the Article Tab and Clipboard Tab.
      • Outlines provide a way to explore topics, often with detail that goes deeper than the article.
      • Outlines help advocates commit talking points to memory.
        • The top level of an outline is often a list of talking points, or supporting points, for the position being taken.
        • Each node in the outline implies a question that is answered in its child nodes. Because you can show and hide the child nodes at any level, you can try to answer the implied question from memory before opening the child nodes.
      • Outlines facilitate the research necessary to obtain quality sources as a separate step in the workflow. See Workflow and Roles > Workflow Steps > Research below.
    • Appropriateness
      • Outlines are appropriate for any post in the Basics Section, Objections Section, or Rebuttals Section.
      • In general, outlines should be used for posts in which they’d be useful for the aforementioned purposes.
        • Outlines are not required for short blog posts or posts that, by their nature, do not rely on cited sources for credibility.
          • The reason outlines are pertinent for any post with more than a few cited sources is that outlines are part of the workflow for research.
        • Examples of posts not requiring outlines are event reports, news reports, or curation posts, whose purpose is to invite readers to explore other sources of information.
    • Special Nodes
      • Special outline nodes are created by placing the capitalized name of the node as the only word in the node.
        • Example:
          • Context
            •  . . . 
          • The First Major Point
          • The Second Major Point
          • The Third Major Point
          • Meta
            •  . . . 
      • The special nodes available to use in an outline are:
        • Context
        • Meta
          • The Meta Node is the last node at the top level of an outline.
          • The Meta Node provides some metadata about the post.
          • It generally contains three child nodes, but it may contain more:
            • Purpose
              • A child node of the Purpose Node explains the purpose of the post  what the post hopes to accomplish.
            • Contributors
              • This child node includes one line for each contributor and a note about the nature of the contribution.
            • Revisions
              • This child node lists revisions and shows the date of each revision, the initials of each revision’s author, and notes about what was revised.
              • A line is also included for the initial post.
            • Example: http://justiceforanimals.org/objections/quote-plants-are-sentient-and-have-feelings-too/
        • Source
          • If a list of nodes has the same source, you can use an inline Source Node to provide the citation.
          • Example:
            • Milk and cheese consumption is linked to prostate and breast cancers.
            • Dairy does not benefit bones as people have been led to believe.
            • Source14“Health Concerns about Dairy Products.” Text. The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, October 13, 2010. http://www.pcrm.org/health/diets/vegdiets/health-concerns-about-dairy-products
        • Extra
          • An Extra Node is used:
            • When there are minor points but there is still some value in including them.
            • To point out arguments that are weak and explain why they are weak.
              • Weak arguments are generally not mentioned in the Article Tab or Clipboard Tab.
              • Pointing out weak arguments will hopefully spare an advocate the embarrassment of being called out for bad logic.
            • If there is any other pertinent information that is not contextual and seems inappropriate for the main article.
      • Special nodes, except for the Context Node, have a style that de-emphasizes the text.
        • The de-emphasis indicates to the reader that the information therein is outside the normal flow.
        • The Context Node is more germane to the post, so it is not de-emphasized.
    • General Guidelines
      • Outlines should be structured, as much as possible, to allow the reader to stop at any level and still be presented with meaningful information.
      • Outlines may go into greater detail than the article but should never provide less detail.
      • The nodes at each level should make sense when read sequentially, without opening the child nodes. This does not apply to the special nodes previously discussed.
        • An example of sequential reading of child nodes:
          • It’s wrong to unnecessarily harm animals.
            • (There could be many levels here. For example, the top level could be one node for each kind of animal we eat, and under each of those nodes, there could be a node for each way we harm that specific animal.)
            • (If we drilled down into each level before reading all the nodes at the top level, we would miss the main logic.)
          • Eating animals harms them.
            • (There could be many levels here.)
            • (If we drill down into each level before reading all the nodes at the top level, we would miss the main logic.)
          • The harm caused is unnecessary.
            • (There could be many levels here.)
            • (If we drill down into each level before reading all the nodes at the top level, we would miss the main logic.)
          • Therefore, it’s wrong to eat animals.
            • (There could be many levels here.)
            • (If we drill down into each level before reading all the nodes at the top level, we would miss the main logic.)
      • The number of nodes at any level should be limited if the nodes are the kind of points that might be committed to memory, such as talking points.
        • The maximum number of such nodes at any level should be seven, not counting special nodes, as discussed below.
        • The optimum number is gleaned from a number of cognitive studies showing how many items humans can process or hold in memory.
        • If the number of nodes at any level starts to proliferate, think of ways to reorganize the information into more general divisions.
      • Nodes should be logically and hierarchically arranged.
        • Although this is implicit in the word “outline,” it is mentioned here for emphasis.
      • Nonterminal nodes should ideally not be longer than one sentence or phrase unless an example follows.
        • Nonterminal nodes that are verbose hinder the ability to understand the structure of the information.
      • Only nonterminal nodes may have citations or links.
        • This is due to:
          • A limitation of the software used for outlining.
          • The way the nodes of an outline are opened and closed by clicking anywhere on the node.
        • This may change in the future.
        • See the Citations of this post for more information about citations.
      • Child nodes should:
        • Expound on the parent node, or
          • When a child node expounds on its parent node, it’s OK for there to be only one child node at that level.
        • List the items or points implied by the parent node.
          • The node above is an example of this.
          • When the child nodes provide a list, the parent node should be terminated with a colon. The grandparent of this node is an example of this.
      • Outlines use a mix of headline-style and sentence-style capitalization.
        • Use headline style when:
          • The node is not a complete sentence.
          • The node is not a sentence continuation from previous sibling nodes.
          • The node is not a sentence continuation from the parent node.
        • When headline style is not used, use sentence style:
          • Capitalize the first word in the node.
          • End the node with terminal punctuation.
      • Outlines follow a specific style when it comes to sentence continuation.
        • Although it is discouraged by CMOS, for JFA outlines, use an ending colon in the parent node when the child nodes complete the sentence started by the parent node.
        • If the continuation child nodes have an “and” relationship with each other, assume that “and” is implied and then terminate the node with a period.
        • If the continuation child nodes have an “or” relationship with each other, for all nodes except the last, place a comma and “or” at the end of the node text and then do not terminate the node text with a period. If the node is the last, terminate the node with a period.
          • Example:
            • You should bring with you:
              • A notepad and pencil, or
              • A laptop computer, or
              • A tablet with a keyboard.
        • The above “or” rule does not apply if it is obvious from the text that the relationship is “or.”
          • Example:
            • The guest may choose one of the following:
              • A slice of vegan corn bread.
              • A stack of vegan pancakes.
              • A bowl of cherries.
      • Outline nodes and headings should be styled according to their function.
        • If the post lends itself to talking points, the outline nodes at the first level should be short sentences stating the main talking points.
          • A post lends itself to talking points if it is presented as an argument for the position stated in the title of the post.
        • The headings in the Article Tab should correspond to the top level of the outline, reworded as phrases if they are not phrases already.
        • For an example, see “We Do Not Need Animal Products to Be Healthy.”
  • Post Structure
    • Table of Contents
      • Include a table of contents (TOC) for Article Tabs containing more than 1,000 words.
        • This is a judgment call.
      • The table of contents is generated automatically from Heading 3 (H3) and Heading 4 (H4) headers when you enter the [toc] shortcode.
        • Use the [toc] shortcode before the first word of the first paragraph in the tab or article.
        • The table of contents will float to the right automatically.
      • For an example of a post with a table of contents, see the Article Tab of http://justiceforanimals.org/basics/we-do-not-need-animal-products-to-be-healthy/.
    • Headers
      • Within a post, the highest level heading allowed is Heading 3 (H3).
        • Heading 1 (H1) and Heading 2 (H2) are reserved for titles and subtitles.
      • Subheadings use Heading 4 (H4).
      • For shorter articles, you may choose to use H3 headings combined with bold text (as described below), skipping the H4 level.
      • Beyond H4, use bold text with a word or phrase and place the bold text inline at the beginning of the paragraph.
        • For an example, see the bold text in the post in the Objections Section titled, “We Need Animal Products to be Healthy.”
      • Extra
        • A WordPress table-of-contents plugin generates entries for H3 and H4 headings if a “[toc]” shortcode is placed in the article.
        • When the posts on the site are parsed into the JFA Handbook (e-book format), the sections will be at the Heading 1 (H1) level and the post titles will be at the Heading 2 (H2) level.
    • Linking
      • Linking to Internal Pages
        • When linking to an internal page, the link should usually open the page in the current tab. However, if the link is on an accordion page (such as the Objections Section), an internal link should be opened in a new tab.
      • Linking to External Pages
        • A link to an external page should be opened in a new tab.
      • External Link vs. Footnote
        • In most cases, use a footnote only.
        • If the referencing text is an implicit or explicit invitation to explore the referenced external information, use a link and a footnote.
          • Example: UC Santa Cruz provides some questions to ask when evaluating the quality of references. “Some questions” would be a link.15“Evaluate the Quality and Credibility of Your Sources | University Library.” Accessed May 16, 2017. http://library.ucsc.edu/help/research/evaluate-the-quality-and-credibility-of-your-sources
            • The link permits easy access.
            • The footnote ensures the source will appear in the endnotes and in the bibliography of the annual JFA Handbook.
          • Providing both a link and a footnote will accommodate the content on the web page as well as the content in the JFA Handbook (both e-book and printed versions).
    • Post Tabs
      • Article
        • The Article Tab contains the main text of the post.
        • If the article is of such length and complexity that it could benefit from a summary, then the summary should be under the first heading (Heading 3) under the Article Tab, labeled as “Summary.”
        • The article may not reflect all the information in the corresponding outline (stopping short of using the outline’s lower levels), or the article may summarize information in the outline at a particular level.
      • Outline
        • Guidelines for writing outlines are presented in a preceding section above.
      • Clipboard
        • This simplified version of an article (under the Clipboard Tab) makes it easy to respond to social media and forum posts that present fallacies about animal rights and veganism. Copy the text to the clipboard with the click of a button, and then go to your target and paste.
          • The copied text intentionally lacks the web-page formatting that complicates the process of copying and pasting.
      •  Explore
        • The Explore Tab suggests pertinent external links related to the post.
      •  Quotes
        • The Quotes Tab provides compelling quotations related to the post.
  • Workflow Steps and Roles
    • Outlining
      • Outlining is the first step in the process of producing a post.
      • An outline is prepared according to the guidelines presented earlier in this document.
      • During the preparation of an outline, research may result in sources that may be factual but are less than optimal because they lack credibility to the target audience.
      • During the outlining process, information is likely to be collected for the Explore Tab and the Quotes Tab.
      • Sources are refined during the next step in the workflow: research.
      • An outlining tool is used to produce the outline.
        • Instead of entering the outline directly into WordPress, authors use a special editor at this stage in the development of a post (unless the post is short enough to not warrant it).
        • The tool used for outlining is the Atom editor with the Folding Text for Atom add-on. The tool is free and available on Windows, Mac, and Linux.
        • Only after the research step (explained below) is completed is the outline copied into the WordPress post.
      • See the screencast (forthcoming) on working with outlines.
    • Research
      • Research may be a separate step in the workflow of an article and assigned to one person, or research may be broken down into smaller tasks that are assigned to, or claimed by, volunteers.
        • As a separate step, research is the process of finding quality sources for the statements presented in the outline.
          • During the process of outlining, statements’ citations may be tagged with “BSN”  ”better source needed.”
          • Example: Newborn calves are typically taken away from their mother within hours of birth. [BSN “Dairy Is Inherently Cruel.” Mercy For Animals, June 24, 2014. http://www.mercyforanimals.org/dairy-is-inherently-cruel
        • As a series of smaller tasks, research assignments will be posted online, and researchers will be assigned to tasks or given the opportunity to claim tasks.
          • The online location of the list of research tasks will be made available to volunteers.
      • All research tasks should follow the general research guidelines.
        • The researcher should find a source that is credible to a non-vegan audience.
        • If the information is found to be exaggerated or incorrect, find the best argument that is not false or exaggerated, modify the statement, and cite the source.
          • Example (above statement modified): Newborn calves are usually separated from their mother within several days of birth. [Citation]
      • If a quality source for a factual statement cannot be found, the statement should not be used. No exceptions.
    • Authoring
      • Once the outline is completed and the sources are strengthened and verified by the research step, the text in the Article Tab and Clipboard Tab need to be completed as applicable.
      • During the authoring step, the quotes for the Quotes Tab, as well as suggestions for additional exploration in the Explore Tab, are entered from information gathered during the outlining step or research step.
    • Copy Editing and Proofreading
      • The phrase “copy editing” is used instead of the word “proofreading” when the work entails not only attention to grammar, punctuation, and spelling but altogether to the five Cs: correctness, clarity, consistency, comprehensibility, and context. Copy editing is done by a professional copy editor or someone intimately familiar with both English grammar and a published style guide. JFA’s chosen style guide is The Chicago Manual of Style.
      • Proofreading and copy editing is communicated in one of two ways:
        • The corrections and suggestions are presented in an email.
        • The corrections are entered via a direct edit of a temporary version of a post, as allowed by the workflow software.
    • Media Preparation
      • JFA is intentionally media sparse.
      • Guidance as to formats, resolution, style, and content will be given as assignments are made.
  • Meta
    • Contributors
      • Greg Fuller   Author
      • Isaac Nickerson   Copy Editor
    • Revisions
      • 2017-07-26 First published   glf
      • 2017-07-27 Minor outline restructuring   glf
      • 2017-08-16 Copy editor’s first pass finished   isn
      • 2017-08-18 Copy editor’s second pass finished   isn
      • 2017-08-21 Minor edits regarding commas and ellipses   glf
      • 2017-08-22 Copy editor’s third pass finished   isn
      • 2017-08-25 The following changes were made:
        • Under outlining, the “purpose” was moved from the Context Node to the Meta Node.
        • All references to the Summary Tab were removed. If a post needs a summary, we will include it under the first heading of the article.
        • Text under Outlines > Special Nodes was changed to reflect that the style of the Context Node is not de-emphasized.
        • Under Outlines > General Guidelines > Sentence Continuation, the wording was changed to reflect that it is required to use a colon, not just acceptable to use a colon.
        • The wording on the workflow for research was changed to reflect that research may be a single step in the workflow or a series of smaller tasks.
        • The information on proofreading was changed to include copy editing.   glf
      • 2017-08-28 Copy editor’s fourth pass finished   isn
      • 2017-09-01 Copy editor’s fifth pass . . . finished   isn
      • 2017-09-05 Added em dash information to the JFA Specific node   glf
      • 2017-09-05 Copy editor’s latest  and greatest  pass   isn

Footnotes   [ + ]

1.Adapted from Amanda Patterson. “155 Words to Describe an Author’s Tone.” Writers Write, June 24, 2014. https://writerswrite.co.za/155-words-to-describe-an-authors-tone/
2.Adapted from Amanda Patterson. “155 Words to Describe an Author’s Tone.” Writers Write, June 24, 2014. https://writerswrite.co.za/155-words-to-describe-an-authors-tone/
3.“Evaluate the Quality and Credibility of Your Sources | University Library.” Accessed May 16, 2017. http://library.ucsc.edu/help/research/evaluate-the-quality-and-credibility-of-your-sources
4.Baltag, A., Rodenhäuser, B., & Smets, S. (2011). Doxastic attitudes as belief-revision policies. (Unpublished manuscript). ILLC, University of Amsterdam. Amsterdam, Netherlands
5.“The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide.” Accessed May 9, 2017. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
6.Fuhrman, Joel. Eat to Live: The Revolutionary Formula for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss. Reprint edition. Little, Brown and Company, 2005, 30
7.Minion Fogarty. “Gender-Neutral Pronouns: Singular ‘They.’” Quick and Dirty Tips, April 7, 2017. http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/gender-neutral-pronouns-singular-they
8.Garner, Bryan A. The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation. University of Chicago Press, 2016
9.Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. Edited by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and University of Chicago Press Staff. 8th. edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013
10.Mignon Fogarty. “3 Tips for Creating Sentences with Punch.” Quick and Dirty Tips, March 16, 2017. http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/3-tips-for-creating-sentences-with-punch
11.Mignon Fogarty. “Grammar Girl Herself, Mignon Fogarty, Talks to CMOS.” CMOS Shop Talk, March 4, 2013. http://cmosshoptalk.com/2013/03/04/this-month-were-talking-to-grammar-girl-herself-mignon-fogarty/
12.“The Chicago Manual of Style Online 2.51: Choosing a Dictionary and Other Reference Works.” Accessed May 17, 2017. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/16/ch02/ch02_sec051.html
13.Jakob Neilson. “How Users Read on the Web,” October 1, 1997. https://www.nngroup.com/articles/how-users-read-on-the-web/
14.“Health Concerns about Dairy Products.” Text. The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, October 13, 2010. http://www.pcrm.org/health/diets/vegdiets/health-concerns-about-dairy-products
15.“Evaluate the Quality and Credibility of Your Sources | University Library.” Accessed May 16, 2017. http://library.ucsc.edu/help/research/evaluate-the-quality-and-credibility-of-your-sources