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Help:Style Guide

From JFA Wiki
This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being the most recent.

Read This First

The Chicago Manual of Style (17th Edition) is JFA's main style guide; therefore, most of JFA’s style will not be listed here. However, since this page lists both a) style decisions unique to JFA and b) all the ways in which JFA’s style deliberately diverts from the CMOS, this page always takes first priority.

  • For spelling, use the first spelling entry in the online Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary. This can be found (with subscription) by traveling to http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/ and selecting Collegiate via the Reference drop-down menu. Exceptions will be listed below, in the (future) TERMINOLOGY section.
  • If that dictionary doesn’t contain a term or all a term's necessary information (e.g., spelling for plurals, verb endings, etc.), consult the online Merriam-Webster Unabridged Dictionary (also requiring subscription) via the same link but with Unabridged selected in the drop-down menu.
  • If a rule conflicts with what is generated by standard wiki markup (and if overcoming that standard markup would result in extra work), consider using the wiki convention and documenting that somewhere appropriate.

Bold text examples represent the correct way to style text. Non-bold text examples (which generally appear beneath bold ones) represent incorrect ways to style text.

Punctuation

Apostrophes
  • Use curly apostrophes, not straight ones
    • I can’t believe you don’t like seitan!
    • I can't believe you don't like seitan!
Colons
  • Using a colon after an introductory sentence fragment
    • If what comes after the colon is a full sentence, capitalize after the colon
      • Note: These are words.
      • Note: these are words.
    • If what comes after the colon is not a full sentence, lowercase after the colon
      • Example: sheep.
      • Example: Sheep.
Commas
  • Use a comma before “too” (when meaning “also")
    • And we want to see you there, too!
    • And we want to see you there too!
    • And you, too, are appreciated.
    • And you too are appreciated.
    • Don’t waste too much time!
    • Don’t waste, too much time!
  • Use a comma before “either” (when appropriate)
    • We shouldn’t waste time, either.
    • We shouldn’t waste time either.
    • I can’t tell if either is joking.
    • I can’t tell if, either is joking.
  • Use a comma before “also” (when appropriate)
    • We’ll be stopping in New York, also.
    • We’ll be stopping in New York also.
    • We’ll also be stopping in New York.
    • We’ll, also be stopping in New York.
  • Do not use a comma before “as well”
    • I need a mask as well.
    • I need a mask, as well.
Ellipses
  • Use them sparingly
  • Use an unspaced ellipsis character (ALT+0133)…
    • at the end of a complete sentence that is trailing off
      • Speciesism has seen its end…
      • Speciesism has seen its end….
      • Speciesism has seen its end. . .
      • Speciesism has seen its end . . .
      • Speciesism has seen its end...
    • at the end of an incomplete sentence that is trailing off
      • But I don’t think we…
      • But I don’t think we....
      • But I don’t think we. . .
      • But I don’t think we . . .
      • But I don’t think we...
    • at the beginning of a sentence that has an initial dramatic pause
      • We are committed. …Expect us.
      • We are committed…Expect us.
      • We are committed. ….Expect us.
      • We are committed….Expect us.
      • We are committed. . . .Expect us.
      • We are committed . . . Expect us.
      • We are committed. ...Expect us.
      • We are committed...Expect us.
    • in the middle of a sentence when a distinct pause is desired
      • It’s time…that we got serious.
      • It’s time….that we got serious.
      • It’s time. . .that we got serious.
      • It’s time . . . that we got serious.
      • It’s time...that we got serious.
      • It’s time … that we got serious.
      • It’s time… that we got serious.
      • It’s time …that we got serious.
Exclamation points
  • Avoid them
    • The evidence for environmental destruction is clear.
    • The evidence for environmental destruction is clear!
    • Why would anyone knowingly support cruelty?
    • Why would anyone knowingly support cruelty?!
  • Never use more than a single exclamation point in a row
    • Let’s make some vegans!
    • Let’s make some vegans!!
    • Let’s make some vegans!!!
    • Let’s make some vegans!!!!!!!!!!
Multiple punctuation marks
  • Use “?!” and never “!?”
    • What do you mean?!
    • What do you mean!?
    • What do you mean?!!
    • What do you mean!??
Question marks
  • Never use more than a single question mark in a row
    • Who’s ready to make history?
    • Who’s ready to make history??
    • Who’s ready to make history???
Quotation marks
  • Use curly quotation marks (the default for Google Docs), not straight ones
    • I said, “I’ll never miss an outreach event.”
    • I said, "I’ll never miss an outreach event."

Titles

Page Titles
  • Avoid apostrophes; write around the need to use them
    • The Final Fall of Carnism
    • Carnism's Final Fall
    • I cannot go vegan because I am lazy.
    • I can't go vegan because I'm lazy.
  • Avoid em dashes; use these methods (appropriately) to write around them:
    • Rewording
      • I am a lion, so I must eat meat!
      • I am a lion, and I must eat meat!
      • I am a lion and so must eat meat!
      • Because I am a lion, I must eat meat!
      • I am a lion. I must eat meat!
      • I am a lion! I must eat meat!
      • I am a lion—I must eat meat!
    • Colon
      • It finally happened: I am vegan.
      • It finally happened—I am vegan.
    • Semicolon
      • I am a monster; I actually like soy.
      • I am a monster—I actually like soy.
    • Parentheses or spaced hyphens
      • I like veggies (if they are cooked well, that is).
      • I like veggies - if they are cooked well, that is.
      • I like veggies—if they are cooked well, that is.
      • When (if ever) will it end?
      • When - if ever - will it end?
      • When—if ever—will it end?
In Reply to Titles
  • Use sentence-style capitalization
    • "I hate vegetables, and my canines do, too!"
    • "I Hate Vegetables, and My Canines Do, Too!"
  • Use terminal punctuation
    • "Every vegan I have met is weak or unintelligent."
    • "Every vegan I have met is weak or unintelligent!"
    • "Every vegan I have met is weak or unintelligent…"
    • "Every vegan I have met is weak or unintelligent"
  • Put the entire title in quotation marks, as if quoting a non-vegan
    • "My dog is cuter than yours, so I would eat yours but not mine."
    • My dog is cuter than yours, so I would eat yours but not mine.
  • Phrase the title as a supposed statement of fact that a non-vegan would say when arguing against veganism
    • "Lions are not vegan; therefore, I cannot be vegan."
    • "Non-vegans falsely imply that humans have the same needs as lions."
[Expand] Titles
  • Begin the title with either "Extra:" or "Details:"
    • Extra: Animal Lives "Saved" versus "Prevented"
    • Details: Animal Lives "Saved" versus "Prevented"
    • Animal Lives "Saved" versus "Prevented"
  • Use headline-style capitalization
    • Extra: More on "Cruelty Free"
    • Extra: More on "cruelty free"
Fact-Sheet Titles
  • Use sentence-style capitalization
    • Animal agriculture is the number-one cause of deforestation.
    • Animal Agriculture Is the Number-One Cause of Deforestation.
  • Use terminal punctuation
    • Veganism as an ethical stance has existed for thousands of years.
    • Veganism as an ethical stance has existed for thousands of years
  • Word titles as true statements of real-world facts
    • A reduction in demand causes a reduction in supply.
    • A reduction in demand will make the world vegan overnight.
    • You are a bad person if you buy animal products.
    • Supply and demand.

The Rest

Abbreviations
  • Don't use abbreviations for social-media platforms; write out the platforms' names
    • See our latest post on Facebook and Instagram.
    • See our latest post on FB and IG.
Buttons
  • When referencing a button, match the capitalization of the actual button
    • Visit CONTACT US on our website.
    • Visit Contact Us on our website.
  • Quotation marks
    • If button-reference text uses block caps or headline-style capitalization, do not use quotation marks
      • Click Next and then Submit.
      • Click “Next” and then “Submit.”
      • The GET INVOLVED button will get you started.
      • The “GET INVOLVED” button will get you started.
    • If button-reference text uses all lowercase or sentence-style capitalization, do use quotation marks
      • Select “Proceed to checkout” to complete your purchase.
      • Select Proceed to checkout to complete your purchase.
      • Go to “show more” for extended options.
      • Go to show more for extended options.
Citations
  • Place citations immediately after the text they support
    • Sixty billion land animals are slaughtered for food every year.[1] You read that right.
    • Sixty billion land animals are slaughtered for food every year. You read that right.[1]
  • Place citations immediately after and against the text they support (with no space).
    • Phil Collins rocks.[2]
    • Phil Collins rocks. [2]
  • For multiple citations, place them one after another, with no spaces or punctuation
    • This info took a lot of research.[3][4][5][6]
    • This info took a lot of research.[3] [4] [5] [6]
    • This info took a lot of research.[3], [4], [5], [6]
  • Per the CMOS: "Relative to other punctuation, the [citation] number follows any punctuation mark except for the dash, which it precedes"
    • This is a note,[1] and this is a note;[2] yet here is one more "note."[3]
    • This is a note[1], and this is a note[2]; yet here is one more "note"[3].
  • For any citation with a link, include an accessed date compatible with CMOS formatting. This is a JFA Wiki requirement, and goes beyond CMOS requirements.
Dates
  • For days of the month, use ordinal numbers
    • My birthday is September 28th.
    • My birthday is September 28.
  • Spell out month names if possible; abbreviate only if necessary
    • Janes’s first speech on Animal Rights was on November 5th, 2017.
    • Jane’s first speech on animal rights was on Nov. 5th, 2017.
  • Avoid using the slash format (since US and UK reverse the order); if a numbers-only format is required, use ISO, which is YYYY-MM-DD
    • JFA Outreach, Nov. 3rd, 2018
    • JFA Outreach, 2018-11-03
    • JFA Outreach, 11/3/2018
    • JFA Outreach, 3/11/2018
  • Include the year with every date (unless the year is implied)
    • Our day with the most tallies was on November 3rd, 2018.
    • Our day with the most tallies was on November 3rd.
    • Last year, ICD was on November 5th.
    • Last year, ICD was on November 5th, 2017.
  • Use BCE and CE, not BC and AD
    • The Old Testament was written in XX BCE; the New Testament, in XX CE.
    • The Old Testament was written in XX BC; the New Testament, in XX AD.
Hyphenation
  • Keep hyphenation for a term the same regardless whether the term is being used as a noun or an adjective
    • Free-range and cage-free labels are meaningless. Nothing is actually free-range or cage-free.
    • Free-range and cage-free labels are meaningless. Nothing is actually free range or cage free.
  • Keep hyphenation for a term the same even if term is using bold, italics, quotation marks, or otherwise
    • Let's talk about the label free-range. What does "free-range" actually mean? Are free-range eggs real?
    • Let's talk about the label free range. What does "free range" actually mean? Are free-range eggs real?
Internationality
  • Avoid words that are generally only used in limited countries
    • Use the restroom before the demo.
    • Use the loo before the demo.
    • Use the washroom before the demo.
  • Avoid words that would have undesired or unclear meanings in other countries
    • After the outreach event, we came home drunk.
    • After the outreach event, we came home angry.
    • After the outreach event, we came home pissed.
  • Include the country when mentioning a city
    • Tyson Foods was not founded in Melbourne, Australia.
    • Tyson Foods was not founded in Melbourne.
  • Include at least the state (written out or abbreviated) when mentioning a US city
    • Next in the tour is Seattle, Washington.
    • Next in the tour is Seattle, Washington, USA.
    • Next in the tour is Seattle, USA.
    • Next in the tour is Seattle.
  • Also see the Temperature section
Latin
  • Avoid Latin constructions; use English equivalents instead
    • I hate animal products—for example, meat, dairy, eggs…
    • I hate animal products (for example, meat, dairy, eggs)…
    • I hate animal products—e.g., meat, dairy, eggs…
    • I hate animal products (e.g., meat, dairy, eggs)…
    • I hate animal products, e.g., meat, dairy, eggs…
Legality
  • Avoid trademarked terms
    • The carnist needs a bandage for his hurt ego.
    • The carnist needs a band-aid for his hurt ego.
    • The carnist needs a Band-Aid for his hurt ego.
    • The carnist needs a bandaid for his hurt ego.
Lists
  • For list items, use sentence-style capitalization
    • Pretend I'm a list item
    • Pretend I'm a List Item
    • pretend I'm a list item
Measurements with units
  • Use numerals, not written-out numbers
    • We held 20 kilograms each
    • We held twenty kilograms each
  • Use the International System of Units; if space allows, put the imperial equivalent in parentheses
    • Our TVs are only 30 centimeters (1 foot) across
    • Our TVs are only 30 centimeters across
  • Spell out units when possible
    • The public outreach space was 3 meters by 3 meters
    • The public outreach space was 3 m by 3 m
Numbers
  • Write out numbers 0–9
    • Seattle had five volunteers.
    • Seattle had 5 volunteers.
  • Write numbers 10+ as numerals
    • We’ve planned 21 outreach events.
    • We’ve planned twenty-one outreach events.
  • For numbers 100+, either write out or use numerals (depending on whichever seems most impactful for the exact context)
    • 100 PIGS RESCUED; 17,000 MORE TO COME
    • ONE HUNDRED PIGS RESCUED; SEVENTEEN THOUSAND MORE TO COME
    • We’ve reached ten trillion followers.
    • We’ve reached 10,000,000,000,000 followers.
  • Numbers at the beginning of sentences should be written out
    • Twelve months ago, Susan became vegan.
    • 12 months ago, Susan became vegan..
  • In a sequence of similar numbers, write all numbers as numerals
    • This week, we got 3, 4, and 15 tallies.
    • This week, we got three, four, and 15 tallies.
    • This week, we got three, 4, and 15 tallies.
    • This week, we got 3, four, and 15 tallies.
    • This week, we got three, four, and fifteen tallies.
  • For negative numbers, us a minus sign (−), not a standard keyboard hyphen (-)
    • I give −8 cares.
    • I give -8 cares.
Percents
  • Spell out "percent" instead of using the percent sign
    • Volunteer count increased by 50 percent this year.
    • Volunteer count increased by 50% this year.
Plant-based
  • Only use “plant-based” when referring to a diet of plants, not an ethical choice of living vegan
    • For better health, try a plant-based diet; for better ethics, live vegan.
    • For better health, live vegan; for better ethics, try a plant-based diet.
Pronouns
  • Never use “it” to refer to an animal; instead, use “he,” “she,” or the singular “they”
    • Your service animal never gave consent. They deserve better.
    • Your service animal never gave consent. She deserves better.
    • Your service animal never gave consent. He deserves better.
    • Your service animal never gave consent. It deserves better.
Social-media terms
  • The Facebook term “like” (used as a noun or a verb) should be go in quotation marks
    • Please “like” this post to vote for a date.
    • Please like this post to vote for a date.
    • Please Like this post to vote for a date.
    • Once this post reaches 2,000 “likes”...
    • Once this post reaches 2,000 likes...
    • Once this post reaches 2,000 Likes...
Tables
  • For table titles, use headline-style capitalization
    • This Is the Title of My Table
    • This is the title of my table
  • For column and row heading cells, use headline-style capitalization
    • Animal Products Used for Food
    • Animal products used for food
  • For body cells, use sentence-style capitalization without terminal punctuation
    • This is text in cell B4
    • This is text in cell B4.
    • This Is Text In Cell B4
Temperature
  • Write temperatures in Celsius, with Fahrenheit immediately after in parentheses
    • I couldn’t believe it went to −30℃ (−22℉).
    • I couldn’t believe it went to −30℃.
    • I couldn’t believe it went to −22℉.
    • I couldn’t believe it went to −22℉ (−30℃).
  • Abbreviate “degrees,” “Celsius,” and “Fahrenheit” instead of writing them out
    • Cook the food to 40℃ (104℉).
    • Cook the food to 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • When abbreviating, use the special characters ℃ and ℉ instead of ° plus a letter
    • It was 0℃ (32℉) outside.
    • It was 0°C (32°F) outside.
  • For negative temperatures, use a minus sign (−), not a standard keyboard hyphen (-)
    • It didn’t get as high as −20℃ (−4℉).
    • It didn’t get as high as -20℃ (-4℉).
Terms
  • When calling out terms as foreign or vocabulary in nature, italicize the term
    • The definition of free range is laughable.
    • The definition of "free range" is laughable.
    • The definition of free range is laughable.
    • The definition of FREE RANGE is laughable.
    • The definition of free range is laughable.
Times
  • Put time-zone designations inside parentheses
    • The outreach event starts at 1 p.m. (PST).
    • The outreach event starts at 1 p.m. PST.
    • The outreach event starts at 1 p.m., PST.

Terminology

All words, terms, and phrases should be written exactly as depicted below (unless their location within a sentence requires otherwise).

  • anti-speciesism — NOT antispeciesism
  • animal rights (noun, adjective) — NOT animal-rights
  • blog post — NOT Blog Post
  • copy and paste (verb) — NOT copy-paste, copy/paste
  • cow's milk — NOT cow milk, cows' milk
  • fact sheet — NOT Fact Sheet
  • home page — NOT homepage, Home Page, Home page
  • non-human (noun, adjective) — NOT nonhuman
  • non-vegan (noun, adjective) — NOT nonvegan
  • plain-text (adjective) — NOT plaintext, plain text
  • reply — NOT Reply
  • social justice (adjective) — NOT social-justice
  • summary — NOT Summary
  • table — NOT Table
  • whole-food plant-based diet — NOT...anything else